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  is in tricolour ( TIRANGA) of deep saffron (Kesari) at the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom in equal proportions.

The Indian flag is a horizontal tricolour in equal proportion of deep saffron on the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom. The ratio of the width to the length of the flag is two is to three. In the centre of the white band, there is a wheel in navy blue to indicate the Dharma Chakra, the wheel of law in the Sarnath Lion Capital. This center symbol or the 'CHAKRA',  is a Buddhist symbol dating back to 200th century BC.

Its diameter approximates the width of the white band and it has 24 spokes, which intends to show that there is life in movement and death in stagnation. The saffron stands for courage, sacrifice and the spirit of renunciation; the white, for purity and truth; the green for faith and fertility. The design of the National Flag of India was adopted by India's constituent assembly on 22nd july, 1947. It's use and display are regulated by a code. The flag symbolizes freedom. The late Prime Minister Pandit Nehru called it a flag not only of freedom for ourselves, but a symbol of freedom for all people.

The tricolour unfurling on the national mast is the biggest sense of achievement and pride for all Indians. Unity in diversity is glorified in each state with our vast geography.

The cosmopolitan culture is not just typical about metros but also the rural masses are getting ahead to prove their names in the Indian and global map. Be it sports, science or technology Indians are everywhere. The struggle from changing over from a developing country to a developed nation has to begin at home.

Our Indian flag is in a beautiful combination of green, white and orange. The central 24 spoked charka in navy blue is the ‘dharma charka’ or duty. This has replaced the earlier ‘charkha’ which was the indigenous symbol of khadi making propogated by Mahatma Gandhi. The Indian flag is a process of evolution.

As the British ruled us and the Indian freedom struggle would be incomplete without a flag, the national leaders both who belive in violence and satyagrahis (non violent supporters) made their synchronized effort to give colour and design to the national flag.

The Indian flag was firstly unfurled as Sister Nivedita flag in 1904 at Calcutta. With a series of interesting changes, rejections and suggestions the flag finally came in being a few days before our Independence in 1947.

The flag is a symbol of purity, self respect and pride of free India. This not only represents our nation in the international stage but also is a tribute to the martyrs who laid their lives in preserving our right to freedom. The flag is a mark of respect for its countrymen and the tolerance India shows to accommodate all religions.

Hindi is the national language of India. Our national anthem ‘Jana Gana Mana’ is a meaningful composition again accentuating the fact of unity in diversity. ‘Jai Hind’ is the official mantra after saluting our national flag.

Strict rules and codes are promulgated to preserve respect to the flag. The national flag is allowed only to be carried on certain vehicles that too related to national leaders and political deputees.

Showing disrespect to the flag by pointing it downwards, unfurling it anywhere without permission, trampling it or touching it on the ground are punishable offences.

The flag can be enfolded with flowers before unfurling and in any sad event when the flag is mutilated, the flag has to burnt completely as a procedure. The patriotic fervour has to maintained at all times and just not on national celebrations. Let the spirit of India be felt by all each day and may we impart the same to our future generations.

History of Flag

Our sentiments with our nation is always high. But much needs to done in widening our knowledge about the evolution of our national flag.

Our tricolour or tiranga is a combination of top saffron colour a pristine white in the centre with green as a last band. The charka has 24 spokes and is in derived from the Ashoka pillar. The indigenous material of India khadi is required for making of the Indian national flag.

The ‘Sister Nivedita flag’ was the first ever flag of India in 1904. It was square shaped and red in colour with a yellow inside. The Vajra symbol or the thunderbolt and a lotus in white is mentioned in the middle. ‘Bonde Matorom’ or ‘Vande Mataram’ or ‘I bow to my motherland’ is inscribed in the Bengali language. Red for struggle, white for purity and yellow for winning is symbolizes in the colours.

The Calcutta flag by Schindra Prasad Bose was hoisted in 1906 in Calcutta. This was done as a protest at a rally, protesting the partition of Bengal. Orange, Yellow and Green are the three colours as top, middle and bottom of the flag. The sun and moon were symbols in the bottom and the half bloomed eight lotuses depicted on the top orange colour. In Devanagri ‘Vande Mataram’ was inscribed.

Bhikaji Cama came up with another flag in Germany in 1907. The flag had green on top, saffron in the middle and a red bottom width. The flag had 8 lotus on the green width meaning the 8 provinces of the old India. Devanagari inscription of ‘Vande Mataram’ was in the middle. There was a crescent shape in the last band and a sun at the end. This flag was designed by Veer Savarkar, Shyamji Krishna Varma and Bhikaji Cama. The green colour stood for Islam faith whereas saffron was represented by saffron colour. The Berlin committee adopted this flag after the first world war. Later it was represented in the United states by the Ghadar party. In the first world war Mesopotamia included this flag.

In 1916, P Venkayya from Andrhra Pradesh presented his design of the Indian flag to Mahatma Gandhi who suggested that the ‘charkha’ the spinning wheel be incorporated in the national flag. The spinning wheel was a great symbol of the nations independence and hence represented the economy of the old India. Venkayya improvised further with the red and green colour flag with the charkha. As this flag was not featuring all the relgions in India this flag did not gain prominence. The Indian National flag mission was formed by Umar Sobani and SB Bomanji.

The Saptarishi constellation was shown in the Union flag owing to the formation of the Home Rule movement which was pioneered by Aniie Besant and Tilak in 1917. This flag somehow did not gain much popularity. The colour was five red and four green horizontal stripes. The upper left carried the Union flag glorifying the Dominion status of the movement.

Ireland was then under the control of British hand hence the Irish flag inspired the Indian flag. Mahatma Gandhi’s urge to implicate the communal harmony in India was essential in the new flag. The white colour was on top, green in the middle and red at the last with the charka featuring in all the bands was unfurled in Ahmedabad at the meeting of the congress party. This flag became famous in all the types of freedom movement.

As the stage for a perfect design of the national flag was aggressively being undertaken many suggestions came up to shape the final symbol.
The All India Sanskrit Congress in 1924 wanted the saffron colour and the gadha/mace of the Hindu God – Vishnu. The geru or earthy toned colour of the Hindu sadhus and Muslim fakirs was also suggested. The Sikhs came up that yellow be included.

In 1931. a seven member committee was developed by the Congress Working committee. The saffron colour dominated by the Indian National Congress rejected this communal dominance depicted in the colour.

In 1931 P Venkayya took the initiative to design the tricolour in a courageous saffron, a white for peace and truth and green mentioning faith and prosperity. The charkha surely depicted the economic independence.

The flag hoisted in Manipur by the armed struggle propagated by Subash Chandra Bose was used by the army with the words Azad Hind and a tiger instead of the charka.

A flag committee was set up a few days before the Indian independence in 1947. With increased effots the Indian National Congress adopted the National flag of India with a major depiction of communal harmony. The Dharma Chakra was used replacing the Charkha. Thus the Indian tricolour flag came into a full fledged existence.

Flag Coad of India

On the occasion of Republic Day and Independence day we see the patriotic fervor increased in all parts of India. It is a shame and very disheartening to see the roads strewn with mutilated flags and hand flags carelessness wilting in the corners of India. The masses should understand the sacrament of the flag and instill the reverence in many minds. The Indian tricolour is not a fashion statement and this should be understood by all the residents of India.

The are several codes decided to preserve the respect of the Indian flag.

The display of The Indian National flag is allowed on important public buildings i.e. Jails, municipalities, zilla parishads, high courts and commissioner’s office.

The frontiers at borders, check posts and camp sites and patrols at border also have the national flag.

The official houses of the high holding posts in the Government or state authorities need to have the national flag. The flag has to hoisted and re hoisted upon the arrival and departure of the dignitary. Wherever the dignitary resides the building should show the national flag. During the national days and celebrations the residence of the dignitary should always have the national flag.

While the dignitaries travel, the national flag has other listed rules on the placement and angles of the flag being positioned.

In the event of the death of mentioned officials the flag is flown half mast as specified in special places either in the building, residence or throughout the country.

The colour of the flag are made in equal rectangular, horizontal widths. The top colour is saffron, the centre is at white and the lower panel is green. The Ashoka charka has 24 spokes in navy blue. It is necessary that the charka be visible from both sides. The charka has to embroided, screen printed, stenciled or printed to perfection.

There are strict rules to be followed if any one mutilates, disfigures, destroys, tramples, defiles or shows any kind of written, spoken or other acts against the national symbol.

There are fines, imprisonment or both as per the severity of the offence.

The rules include flowing the flag half mast during unsuitable circumstances, dipping the flag in salute of wrongly procedures or allowing the flag to touch the ground or trail in water.

The draping of the flag is also described and it is essential the flag cannot be used to carry anything except flowers while hoisting.

The flag cannot be a part of decoration or covering a building or a monument.

Inspite of any weather condition the flag has to be flown from sunrise to sunset. The flag should not have any fasteners to damage it in any way.


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The National Anthem of India

The Indian National anthem, originally composed  in Bengali by Rabindranath Tagore, was adopted in its Hindi version by the Constituent Assembly as the National Anthem of India on 24 January 1950. It was first sung on 27 December 1911 at the Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress. The complete song consists of five stanzas. Playing time of full version of the National Anthem is  approximately 52 seconds. The lyrics were rendered into English by Rabindranath Tagore himself.

जन गण मन अधिनायक जय हे
भारत भाग्यविधाता
पंजाब सिन्धु गुजरात मराठा
द्राविड़ उत्कल बंगा
विन्ध्य हिमाचल यमुना गंगा
उच्छल जलधि तरंगा
तव शुभ नामे जागे
तव शुभ आशीष मागे
गाहे तव जयगाथा

जन गण मंगलदायक जय हे
भारत भाग्यविधाता
जय हे, जय हे, जय हे
जय जय जय जय हे!

National Song of India

Composed by Bankim Chandra Chatterji in Sanskrit, the song Vande Mataram was primarily conceived to serve as a motivation to the people in their freedom struggle. Though it was penned down in 1876, the first publication emerged in the year 1882 in 'Anandamatha' amidst doubts of a ban by the British Raj. Sharing an equal status with Jana-gana-mana (National Anthem of India), the song was first sung in the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress. Vande Mataram served as a voice against British rule during the freedom struggle. Initially, people with patriotic fervor flocked the streets of Calcutta and other metropolis, shouting the slogan 'Vande Mataram' or 'Hail to the Mother (land)!'

Terrified by the impending danger, British banned the expression of song and imprisoned freedom fighters, who disobeyed the command. Vande Mataram initially served as the National Anthem of India, but later Jana-gana-mana was adopted as the anthem of independent India. This was because the Muslim sect in India felt that the song was biased, as it depicted the nation as 'Ma Durga', a Hindu Goddess. Though Vande Mataram aptly illustrated the pre-independence national zeal and passion, it was espoused as the National Song of India. In the following lines, we have provided the wordings of the National Song of India and its English translation.

National Song Of India

Vande maataraM
sujalaaM suphalaaM malayaja shiitalaaM
SasyashyaamalaaM maataram ||

Shubhrajyotsnaa pulakitayaaminiiM
pullakusumita drumadala shobhiniiM
suhaasiniiM sumadhura bhaashhiNiiM
sukhadaaM varadaaM maataraM ||

Koti koti kantha kalakalaninaada karaale
koti koti bhujai.rdhR^itakharakaravaale
abalaa keno maa eto bale
bahubaladhaariNiiM namaami taariNiiM
ripudalavaariNiiM maataraM ||

Tumi vidyaa tumi dharma
tumi hR^idi tumi marma
tvaM hi praaNaaH shariire

Baahute tumi maa shakti
hR^idaye tumi maa bhakti
tomaara i pratimaa gaDi
mandire mandire ||

TvaM hi durgaa dashapraharaNadhaariNii
kamalaa kamaladala vihaariNii
vaaNii vidyaadaayinii namaami tvaaM

Namaami kamalaaM amalaaM atulaaM
SujalaaM suphalaaM maataraM ||

ShyaamalaaM saralaaM susmitaaM bhuushhitaaM
DharaNiiM bharaNiiM maataraM |"

English Translation

Mother, I bow to thee!
Rich with thy hurrying streams,
bright with orchard gleams,
Cool with thy winds of delight,
Dark fields waving Mother of might,
Mother free.

Glory of moonlight dreams,
Over thy branches and lordly streams,
Clad in thy blossoming trees,
Mother, giver of ease
Laughing low and sweet!
Mother I kiss thy feet,
Speaker sweet and low!
Mother, to thee I bow.

Who hath said thou art weak in thy lands
When the sword flesh out in the seventy million hands
And seventy million voices roar
Thy dreadful name from shore to shore?
With many strengths who art mighty and stored,
To thee I call Mother and Lord!
Though who savest, arise and save!
To her I cry who ever her foeman drove
Back from plain and Sea
And shook herself free.

Thou art wisdom, thou art law,
Thou art heart, our soul, our breath
Though art love divine, the awe
In our hearts that conquers death.
Thine the strength that nervs the arm,
Thine the beauty, thine the charm.
Every image made divine
In our temples is but thine.

Thou art Durga, Lady and Queen,
With her hands that strike and her
swords of sheen,
Thou art Lakshmi lotus-throned,
And the Muse a hundred-toned,
Pure and perfect without peer,
Mother lend thine ear,
Rich with thy hurrying streams,
Bright with thy orchard gleems,
Dark of hue O candid-fair

In thy soul, with jewelled hair
And thy glorious smile divine,
Lovilest of all earthly lands,
Showering wealth from well-stored hands!
Mother, mother mine!
Mother sweet, I bow to thee,
Mother great and free!

National Flower of India

Lotus scientifically known as Nelumbo Nucifera is the National Flower of India. It is a sacred flower and occupies

Lotus scientifically known as Nelumbo Nucifera is the National Flower of India. It is a sacred flower and occupies a unique position in the art and mythology of ancient India and has been an auspicious symbol of Indian culture since time immemorial. The Lotus symbolises divinity, fertility, wealth, knowledge and not to forget enlightenment. Lending to its uniqueness, the flower grows in murky waters and rises on a long stalk above the surface to bloom glorious. It is also a symbol of triumph, since the lotus is rooted in the mud and can survive to regerminate for thousands of years. It represents long life, honor, and good fortune. Untouched by the impurity, lotus symbolises the purity of heart and mind.

National emblem of India

The state emblem is an adaptation from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. In the original, there are four lions, standing back to back, mounted on an abacus with a frieze carrying sculptures in high relief of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull and a lion separated by intervening wheels over a bell-shaped lotus.

Carved out of a single block of polished sandstone, the capital is crowned by the Wheel of the Law (Dharma Chakra). In the State emblem, adopted by the Government of India on 26 January 1950. The wheel appears in relief in the centre of the abacus with a bull on right and a horse on left and the outlines of other wheels on extreme right and left. The words Satyameva Jayate from Mundaka Upanishad, meaning ‘Truth Alone Triumphs’, are inscribed below the abacus in Devanagari script.

National Animal of India

The Tiger

The tiger is the symbol of India's wealth of wildlife. The magnificent tiger, Panthera tigris, is a striped animal.

The tiger is the symbol of India's wealth of wildlife. The magnificent tiger, Panthera tigris (Linnaeus), is a striped animal. It has a thick yellow coat of fur with dark stripes. The combination of grace, strength, agility and enormous power has earned the tiger its pride of place as the national animal of India. Out of eight races of the species known, the Indian race, the Royal Bengal Tiger, is found throughout the country except in the north-western region and also in the neighbouring countries, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh

National Bird of India

The Peacock

The Peacock, Pavo cristatus (Linnaeus), the national bird of India. It is symbolic of qualities like beauty, grace,

The Peacock, Pavo cristatus (Linnaeus), the national bird of India. It is symbolic of qualities like beauty, grace, pride and mysticism. Peacocok is a colourful, swan-sized bird, with a fan-shaped crest of feathers, a white patch under the eye and a long, slender neck.

The male of the species is more colourful than the female, with a glistening blue breast and neck and a spectacular bronze-green train of around 200 elongated feathers it is able to expand its tail erect like fan as ostentatious display. The female is brownish, slightly smaller than the male, and lacks the train. 

These birds do not sound as beautiful as they look they have a harsh call. The elaborate courtship dance of the male, fanning out the tail and preening its feathers is a beautiful sight. The peacock is widely found in the Indian sub-continent from the south and east of the Indus river, Jammu and Kashmir, east Assam, south Mizoram and the whole of the Indian peninsula. Found wild in India (and also domesticated in villages) they live in jungle lands near water. They were once bred for food but now hunting of peacocks is banned in India. It is fully protected under the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

National Fruit of India


The Mango is the national fruit. It has been cultivated in India since time immemorial. There are over 100 varieties

The Mango is the national fruit. It has been cultivated in India since time immemorial. There are over 100 varieties of mangos in India, in a range of colors, sizes, and shapes.

 Common in the tropical part of the world, mangos are savored for their sweet juice and bright colors. People in India eat mangos ripe, or prepare them green as pickles or chutneys. They are rich in vitamin A, C, and D.

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